Reconstructive surgery is, in its broadest sense, the use of surgery to restore the form and function of the body, although maxilla-facial surgeons, plastic surgeons and otolaryngologists do reconstructive surgery on faces after trauma and to reconstruct the head and neck after cancer. Other branches of surgery (e.g., general surgery, gynecological surgery, pediatric surgery, cosmetic surgery) also perform some reconstructive procedures. The common feature is that the operation attempts to restore the anatomy or the function of the body part to normal. Reconstructive plastic surgeons use the concept of a reconstructive ladder to manage increasingly complex wounds. This ranges from very simple techniques such as primary closure and dressings to more complex skin grafts, tissue expansion and free flaps.